Read below and discover the method of solar panels manufacturing

Solar power is one of the cleanest, most efficient, and most carbon-free forms of generating electricity. Since its inception, solar technology has seen many advancements that have cut down its manufacturing and operational costs. In the first part of this article, we will explore how silicon is used to create solar cells- a solar panel’s basic building blocks.

Production of Silicon

  • The primary raw material for solar panels is silicon. Silicon in its pure form does not occur independently but has to be collected from the sand. Different types of sand have varying quantities of silicon. Usually, beach sand is preferred for isolating silicon. Silicon, from sand, is the second most abundant element on Earth.

In addition to the above, silicon can also be obtained from recycled solar panels. A professional solar recycling company facilitates this process. They recycle the solar panels into functional subcomponents that can be used for manufacturing new panels. This process saves a lot of energy as well as money.

  • The process that converts sand into silicon requires a lot of money and energy. If the process isn’t performed correctly, the result is impure silicon which cannot be used to make solar panels. So instead, high-grade and pure silicon is made using an arc furnace at a very high temperature containing quartz sand.

Creating Ingots

The silicon created from the arc furnace is in the shape of solid rocks. These rocks cannot be directly used for making solar panels. Therefore, hundreds of such rocks are piled together and then heated at very high temperatures. This creates ingots shaped like cylinders. A cylindrical steel furnace is used for the heating to ensure that each ingot is of the right shape.

  • While the silicon rocks are melted, special attention is given to giving all the atoms the proper structure and orientation. To provide the silicon with a positive electrical polarity, Boron is added.

There are different types of solar panels, and their differences are due to the manufacturing process used. For example, mono-crystalline solar cells are made from a single silicon crystal. As a result, these solar cells have superior efficiency in absorbing sunlight and creating electricity. This is one of the main reasons why mono-crystalline solar panels are the most expensive on the market.

  • Poly-crystalline solar cells are made from many different crystals of silicon. These crystals are melted together. If you closely observe, you will see a shattered glass-like appearance in the polycrystalline cells.

After the ingots have cooled down to a suitable temperature, they go through polishing and grinding. This ensures that the ingots have flat sides.

Silicon Wafers

  • Ingots are used to create silicon wafers, the next step in the solar panel manufacturing process. First, the ingots are sliced into thin disks. For precision cutting, a wire saw is used. The silicon wafers have the thickness of a piece of paper.

The pure silicon is reflective and shiny. An anti-reflecting coating is added to the silicon wafer to avoid sunlight being reflected. This enables the silicon wafer to absorb as much sunlight as possible, thus maximizing its efficiency.

Solar Cells

  • solar panels manufacturingWhen the silicon wafers are ready, metal conductors are added to their surface. The conductors give a grid-like appearance to the silicon wafer. The conductor aid in the absorption of sunlight. The grid-like appearance promotes the smooth flow of electrons across the wafer.

These wafers are now placed in a huge oven. Phosphorous, in the form of a thin layer, is diffused on the wafers. Phosphorous allows the surface of the wafers to have a negative electrical polarity. The combination of Boron and Phosphorous provides the positive-negative junction, which is essential for the proper functioning of the solar cell.

If you have faulty solar panels and solar equipment, then you can play your part in protecting the environment by recycling them. We at PV2 Recycle can recycle all of your solar equipment, thus reducing the carbon footprint for manufacturing new solar panels. Contact us today at to learn more about our services.

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